MILITARY: Conflicts in 20th & 21st Centuries

Image result for Photos Gulf War

THE GULF WAR: 1990-1991

The Gulf War  (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces by 35 nations, led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq’s invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes.

April Glaspie, Sadoun al-Zubaydi and Saddam Hussein.jpg

On the July 25th, 1990 , Saddam met with April Glaspie in Baghdad, the US Ambassador to Iraq since 1988. She had been born in British Columbia and became an expert in the Middle East. Her report to the government that “We have no opinion on your Arab-Arab conflicts” and that “the Kuwait issue is not associated with America” may have been  interpreted by Saddam as giving free rein to handle his disputes with Kuwait as he saw fit. It seems far more likely that Saddam Hussein went ahead with the invasion because he believed the US would not react with anything more than verbal condemnation.  Iraq invaded Kuwait August 1990.

Of the 219 (212 men and 7 women) USA casualties, 154 were killed in battle and 65 died from non battle causes. Thirty-five of the battle deaths were a result of friendly fire.

Resource: Desert Fire:  The Diary of A Gulf War Gunner, by Andrew Gillespie. Published 2001




John Howard Gillespie, Major, Officer 004, Army,  black or African American, birth June 20, 1956 from Philadelphia,Pennsylvania, died in 28 Com,  Spt Hospital, Saudia Arabia Feb 17, 1991  -Persian Gulf War. Non hostile death (accident, vehicle crash), Buried unknown DISP.  Operation Desert Storm

Image result for Photos Gulf War


Image result for Photos Gulf War


National Desert Storm and Desert Shield War Memorial


On October 7, 2001, in response to the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush announced that airstrikes targeting Al Qaeda and the Taliban had begun in Afghanistan. Operation Enduring Freedom primarily refers to the War in Afghanistan,]but it is also affiliated with counterterrorism operations in other countries, such as OEF-Philippines and OEF-Trans Sahara. 

After 13 years, on December 28, 2014 President Barack Obama announced the end of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. Continued operations by the United Nations military forces, both non-combat and combat, now occur under the name Operation Freedom’s Sentinel.  2020 Troops are being withdrawn as I pen these lines.


Randy Joe Gillespie, Rank, MSGT, Air Force died July 9, 2007, Home of Record Coaldale, Colorado. Operation Enduring Freedom.


PUBLICATION RECOMMENDED : Afghanistan, A Military History From Alexander the Great to the Fall of the Taliban, by Stephen Tanner. His details are remarkable and insightful.  Tremendous look at history in this country from earliest times to today. I learned a lot.

Record Count: 3

Record Sources:  Military and history websites